Jonathan Edwards loved the pulpit, and according to BJU Press, was more teacher and preacher than pastor. For many Calvinists such a question asks far too much of them to reflect upon. George Whitefield (1714–1770) George Whitefield was a famous friend of Edwards. This letter was written by Sarah Edwards, wife of Jonathan Edwards, to her brother, James Pierpoint of New Haven about the visit of the evangelist, George Whitefield, who came to Northampton in October, 1740.1 October 24, 1740. Is that the mark of a great mind? Moreover I find it troubling that Wesley’s contemporaries on the other side of the theological spectrum, Edwards and Whitefield, not only owned many slaves but advocated for slavery to continue at a time when many were questioning the morality of holding their fellow human being in dehumanizing bondage. And herein is where the center of my critique will largely focus. And the fall becomes not only inevitable but necessary. Welcome to Two-Handed Warriors! Magi, Wise Men, or Kings? Would it not be to put one’s self in the position of fighting against Almighty God? The world is the way it is because God predestined it so. A. Whitefield and Edwards both reduced their audiences to tears with their booming, theatrical sermons. That is to say that God withdrew or withheld the grace creatures needed not to sin. Or, more charitably, Edwards saw the inconsistency of others more clearly than he saw his own in this case.”, While there is much virtue in the man–well beyond my own–to be praised and admired, I. find it interesting and a bit telling that leading Calvinists like Edwards as well as George Whitfield supported and defended America’s enslavement of Blacks and were totally blind to how such support was inconsistent and diametrically opposed to the character of God as revealed through Christ. For Calvinists adopting inconsistent views that run afoul of God’s character is nothing new. Fallacies of Calvinist Apologetics Series, Piper Theology Critique Series by StriderMTB, Question and Answer Series by Ben Henshaw, Seven Minute Seminary: “Wesleyan-Arminianism is a God-Centered, Not Human-Centered Theology”, VIDEO: Understanding Salvation with Bruxy and Nina Cavey, Video by Seth Miller: “Ask An Arminian: Total Depravity”, Video: Seven Minute Seminary: Larry Wood, “John Wesley’s Place in the Protestant Reformation”, Video by Seth Miller: “Ask An Arminian: My Story with Arminianism”, Roger Olson Video Lecture: “Calvinism Part IV: Final Evaluation of Calvinism”, Roger Olson Video Lecture: “Calvinism Part III: The Young, Restless, and Reformed Movement, Roger Olson Video Lecture: “Calvinism Part II: Tenets of Calvinism”, Roger Olson Video Lecture: “Calvinism Part I: History of Calvinism Among Baptists”, Is Everything that Happens God’s Will? George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, and Gilbert Tennent: "What the colonies had awakened to in 174o was none other than independence and rebellion." The Puritans regarded themselves as God’s Elect, and so they had no difficulty with slavery, which had the sanction of the Law of the God of Israel. But first a little disclaimer is in order. Strangely enough Edwards, the voice of America’s spiritual awakening, sought to defend America’s domestic slavery of Africans while at the same time denouncing the Transatlantic slave trade that was decimating many African countries in bringing slaves to America. Edwards tried to resolve this by appealing to God’s larger and narrower views. . As such slavery ought now to be abolished from the Christian community. Fourth, he was a social phenomenon. Jonathan Edwards was the only son in a family of eleven children. In fact within a few short years in 1744, “a number of his parishioners insisted upon an account of his own expenditures, an action suggesting the jealousy and resentment aroused by the family’s taste for jewelry, chocolate, Boston-made clothing, children’s toys—, Strangely enough Edwards, the voice of America’s spiritual awakening, sought to defend America’s domestic slavery of Africans, “Edwards attempted to thread a needle between ending the Transatlantic slave trade, on the one hand, and supporting the domestic servitude of Africans on the other. After acquiring his own plantation and buying numerous slaves Whitefield became one of the most vocal proponents to reintroduce slavery to Georgia after it was banned. Subscribe to CT magazine for full access to the. Sadly such divine tenants are glaringly absent in Calvinist theology. A British clergyman of the Anglican Church, Whitefield’s eloquent oratory skills and charismatic personality helped spark the spiritual revival known as “The Great Awakening” throughout Britain, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and the North American colonies. But he insisted that God is not guilty of sin or evil because…God’s motive in rendering them certain was good. However at the end of the day Whitefield opted for moral and theological compromise because he felt the economy of Georgia needed the backs of slaves to hold it up. Or, more charitably, Edwards saw the inconsistency of others more clearly than he saw his own in this case.” [9]. It was difficult to see anybody except your family and your nearest neighbors. It does not mean being able to do otherwise. The Calvinist doctrine of predestination easily supported the Puritans in a position that blacks were a people cursed and condemned by God to serve whites. How many white people have been destroyed for want of them…”, In contrast to Whitefield, John Wesley, who also lived in Georgia for a time always opposed slavery and called America’s enslavement of the Blacks, “that execrable sum of all villanies.” [16]. There is no denying that Edwards was a towering force of intellectual influence in his day. For example (and here you will have to trust me or look at my chapter on Edwards in The Story of Christian Theology and my many allusions to him and his theology in Against Calvinism): Edwards argued that God’s sovereignty requires that he create the entire universe and everything in it ex nihilo at every moment. But such sentiments cannot excuse the fact that Whitefield’s actions in advocating that a “hot country” like Georgia needed slaves to be “a flourishing country” helped to consign thousands of Blacks to a future enslavement whereby many suffered under cruel masters who did not share Whitefield’s view in “making their lives comfortable, and lay a foundation for breeding up their prosperity in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.” What is most astonishing is that Whitefield, Recently Roger Olson wrote a critique of Edwards legacy. Conundrums like how God’s mind can be the logical origin of every person’s sin in virtue of decreeing each sin, and yet not be the author of the very sins he unilaterally decrees. In the grand scope of things, seen from the widest perspective possible, sin and evil are part of the grand scheme of God to glorify himself. Whitefield was all life and fire, thunder and lightning. $24.00 softcover Good biographers faithfully present all the facets of the person they are studying. Dear Brother James, I want to prepare you for a visit from the Rev. Edwards is widely regarded as one of America's most important and original philosophical theologians. Merely knowing about these evangelical “icons” was not enough Christian History: In America, in 1740, Whitefield was a religious phenomenon without equal. Is that the mark of a great mind? Again–to give an event in the world your disapproval is to call into question what God has predetermined ought to occur. Asking someone to define Jonathan Edwards’ historical and theological legacy can vary from person to person. Roughly a hundred years later, this same absurd notion (forcing one’s neighbor to work without pay is not counter Kingdom) would be articulated by the prominent Calvinist minister, Richard Fuller, one of the principal founders of the Southern Baptist Convention in 1845. This is cognitive dissonance par excellence. to George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards. God rendered the fall and all its horrible consequences inevitable or even necessary. It is uncertain if Venus was still a household slave in family’s possession upon his death. Need I go on making my case that Edwards’ theology contains massive flaws? Subscribe to CT to continue reading this article from the archives. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield are to revivalism and the Great Awakening as Vince Young and Reggie Bush are to athletes and a new age of football. Edwards disagreed. But all things considered I think it is accurate to say the pioneers of abolitionism were largely Arminian–and we shouldn’t dismiss this as mere coincidence. Free will, according to him, only means doing what you want to do–following the strongest inclination provided to the will by the affections. It is actually logically consistent of Edwards to hold this because Calvinism holds that all the affairs of the world are predetermined by God. Should it really surprise us that Calvinist leaders of the Southern Baptist Convention defended slavery–and did so on Calvinist theological grounds, with telling title defenses like, “Slavery Ordained by God.” [12] Should it surprise us that White, Afrikaner Calvinists long used their Calvinist theology of unconditional election and God’s meticulous, sovereign predestination of all things as an aid in identifying themselves as God’s special elect in order to justify racial discrimination and eventual apartheid in South Africa?[13]. Well, I’m not saying he didn’t have a great mind. When he wrote the congregation in defense of Doolittle, he chided them for their hypocrisy, for condemning slavery but enjoying the fruits of slave economy. While American revivalists such as Edwards and Gilbert Tennent … 2 George Whitefield—Man of Grace As for the Bishops, the majority of them were also men of the world. He and his wife Sarah had eleven children of their own. And herein is where the center of my critique will largely focus. Perhaps he felt the time would come that America’s domestic use of slaves would end, but if that day did come it would be a result of a new era in God’s preordination coming to pass. When he was just 25 years old, the English Evangelist George Whitefield visited the American town of Northampton, the town made famous by a revival in the 1730’s. We still feel Whitefield's influence today. In 1749 slavery was indeed outlawed in Georgia, but Whitefield saw this as an economic travesty and intentionally campaigned for it to be legally legislated once again. To be fair we can commend Whitefield in speaking out against the excessive mistreatment of slaves in his day and for promoting the belief that Black slaves also had souls of value and therefore should be evangelized and even educated (a progressive view in Georgia). Though John Wesley and Jonathan Edwards were born the same year (1703) and admired each other’s evangelistic work, the two men never met. (For the full article please go here.). But if God be for you, who can be against you? Five of the First Great Awakening's most important preachers were Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, Theodore Freylinghuysen, and William and Gilbert Tennent. Differences between Edwards and Whitfield: Edwards only occasionally preached outside of his church/Whitfield spent his entire life in itinerancy, usually preaching in public spaces rather than church buildings . George Whitefield, (born Dec. 27, 1714, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Sept. 30, 1770, Newburyport, Mass. 16 December] 1714 – 30 September 1770), also known as George Whitfield, was an Anglican cleric and evangelist who was one of the founders of Methodism and the evangelical movement. A series of religious revivals swept through the colonies in the 1730s. Another possibility is that he sold her or traded her in for another female slave, such as Leah or Sue, two other slaves that show up in documents. While there is much virtue in the man–well beyond my own–to be praised and admired, I find it interesting and a bit telling that leading Calvinists like Edwards as well as George Whitfield supported and defended America’s enslavement of Blacks and were totally blind to how such support was inconsistent and diametrically opposed to the character of God as revealed through Christ. The question that naturally arises is: from where did the first evil inclination come? Cotton Mather told blacks they were the “miserable children of Adam and Noah, “for whom slavery had been ordained as a punishment.” [14]. It is impossible and indeed misguided to attempt to denounce the merits of Calvinism or extol the virtues of Arminianism solely on the basis of whose historical theologians had more slaves–for there will always be exceptions. [11] One will not find greater reasons to condemn the unjust enslavement of one’s neighbor and advocate for the freedom of all. Well known Calvinist Puritan, Cotton Mather, certainly thought so for any Black slave that desired their (unordained) freedom, saying, “And it is pride that tempts slaves to desire the freedom God did not ordain for them.” [1]. This leads to another issue, and that is Edwards’, But first a little disclaimer is in order. If they are determined by his wisdom and necessary for his glory, why would he abhore them? Already a subscriber? Edward’s Calvinistic theology led him to believe that everything that occurs in the world is exactly as God predestined it to be–including slavery. The single greatest flaw is the character of God. Like his contemporary and acquaintance, Jonathan Edwards, Whitefield preached staunchly Calvinist theology that was in line with the "moderate Calvinism" of the Thirty-nine Articles. It’s Complicated. Whitefield preached alongside each of those ministers. Edwards disagreed. Are all of them together stronger than God? Had Mr Henry been in America, I believe he would have seen the lawfulness and necessity of having negroes there. [17], Recently Roger Olson wrote a critique of Edwards legacy. Yet in many ways, Whitefield has had greater lasting significance. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield: Slaveholding and Calvinism Posted on August 1, 2012 by StriderMTB Asking someone to define Jonathan Edwards’ historical and theological legacy can vary from person to person. Browse 60+ years of magazine archives and web exclusives. Calvinism’s problem is that what God predestines is so closely aligned to what God condones that a Calvinist must step outside his theology to condemn it and redress it. Well, I’m not saying he didn’t have a great mind. The Calvinist doctrine of predestination easily supported the Puritans in a position that blacks were a people cursed and condemned by God to serve whites. He asks, “Is it… a crime for men to hold men in a condition where they labor for another without their consent or contract?” Fuller emphatically argues no, stating, “the crime is not slaveholding, but cruelty.” Fuller then goes on to astonishingly declare that nothing in the NT (regarding the inauguration of the Kingdom of God) argues against holding a fellow human being in bondage against his will, because slavery is not the right to cruelly abuse another. But it is more likely the case that Edwards felt so strongly that a congregational threat to a fellow minister on the basis of lavish living and slave ownership was a threat against his own livelihood as a slave owning minister. The following is a section of Olson’s critique. Edwards wanted to get God off the hook for being the author of sin and evil, but ultimately he couldn’t. Help me out with my essay question please! George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards (part 1) November 4, 2009. December 28, 2020, Martin Glynn, No Comment, December 24, 2020, Remonstrance, No Comment, Copyright © 2013  |  Not willing that any should perish, On the other hand Edwards demonstrated an unnerving talent to be thoroughly inconsistent–for Edwards was also a slave owner! When he wrote the congregation in defense of Doolittle, he chided them for their hypocrisy, for condemning slavery but enjoying the fruits of slave economy. It is not my intention to disparage Jonathan Edwards or smear his reputation. Olson believes that Edwards has become the darling of Christian thought for many evangelicals due in no small part to receiving a “pass” on many of his unfortunate logical and theological blunders–not to mention his glaring hypocrisy in defending slave ownership. While I had long known that Edwards was the founder of Princeton, I was surprised to recently discover that he was also somewhat socially progressive for his time in advocating that Indians be compensated for land taken from them–which placed him in hot water with some of his New England parishioners. Jonathan Edwards was the only son in a family of eleven children. Edwards, more realistically, had to allow that “things” were not yet “settled in peace,” and so the fallen world’s order, which for him included slavery, was still in effect.” [5]. The Bible says God alone is able to overcome all resistance. Why have her be held in the grip of slavery up until his death? Third, people were impressed with Whitefield’s spirituality, with his longing for God. This article is originally published on the blog by StriderMTB, A Theology of Tension. How did the American preacher Jonathan Edwards’s preaching style compare with the British preacher George Whitefield’s? Whether one can admit it or not, the fact is there is very little, As already noted above, a belief in theological determinism, like that in Calvinism, leaves little room to truly condemn anything or anyone. See: http://www.umcmission.org/Find-Resources/Global-Worship-and-Spiritual-Growth/The-Wesleys-and-Their-Times/Thoughts-Upon-Slavery, http://www.slavenorth.com/massachusetts.htm, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/wesley/journal.vi.xvi.v.html, http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/wesley/wilber.stm, http://www.patheos.com/blogs/rogereolson/2012/07/why-is-jonathan-edwards-considered-so-great/, Remonstrance Minisode 31: The True Way of Keeping Christmas. Edwards and Whitefield were revolutionists during the … George Whitefield: v. 1 : The Life and Times of the Great Evangelist of the Eighteenth Century Revival. Franklin and Whitefield knew one another. However it cannot be denied that the early, “trailblazing” abolitionists in the Church were by and large Arminians–men like Wesley, Asbury, Wilberforce and Finney. Rev. In attempting to pay God too many and too large metaphysical compliments, Edwards ends up chasing his tail and contradicting himself. Jonathan Edwards, Samuel Davies (1723–1761), and other respected Christian leaders owned slaves. In fact Doolittle later had the last word against his detractors by relenting of slave ownership, freeing his one slave Abijah Prince and generously granting him his legacy and his personal land title estates in Northfield–which truly was unheard of at that time. Without Whitefield the amazing phenomena of 1740–41 might never have come to pass. Everything God does is necessary–including rendering sin and evil certain. This chapter provides an account of the interactions between Whitefield and the colonial American preacher and theologian Jonathan Edwards of Northampton, Massachusetts, first during Whitefield’s visit there in 1740 and especially during the virtually ignored visit of 1745, showing that there were initial points of friction between the two. It was said that Archbishop Cornwallis gave so many balls and social parties at Lambeth Palace that the King actually wrote When a pastor's irresistible ideals met his congregation's immovable status-consciousness. I believe there was theological contamination. To their credit many Calvinists did join the ranks of abolitionists in time, but in my opinion that shift in thought was due more to getting caught up in the surrounding culture’s evolution in progressive, enlightenment thinking than to Calvinism per se. Explain how the intellectual life of mid-18th century America accommodated all of these men. Perhaps it’s fitting to simply state: It takes a hypocrite to know a hypocrite. Dear Brother James, I want to prepare you for a visit from the Rev. Five of the First Great Awakening's most important preachers were Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, Theodore Freylinghuysen, and William and Gilbert Tennent. Rather I am troubled by the fact that few pause long enough to consider the strong possibility that Edwards’ Calvinistic, theological determinism may have exerted a strong influence on his decision to unapologetically defend slave ownership–or at minimum blinded him to the horror of being complicit in such a social evil. Toys for their kids 20,000 each full glorification subscribe now philosophical theologians all Protestant denominations the... Necessarily in order Slaveholding and Calvinism the British preacher George Whitefield 's in public... 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